Adult Dimensions: Height up to 5m, width up to 5m (16.4').
Soil Type: Rich and fertile.
Hardiness: hardy to -28°C.
Exposure: Full sun.
Growth of truffles:
The hazel is an excellent truffle tree. It is important to plant it in a very chalky (alkaline, pH greater than 7.5) soil which is well drained to avoid any excessive moisture. It is suited to dry regions where there is little rainfall. It is vital that your plants establish good roots if the truffles are going to properly develop; therefore, meticulous soil preparation is essential before planting.
• See Planting truffle trees.
• The planting density for tuber melanosporum varies between 250 and 400 plants per hectare.
Regular maintenance and careful watering are equally important if you want to succeed.
• See Everything you need to know about the truffle and how to grow it.
It is a better choice of tree on poor or damp soils.
Usually it will take between 5 and 6 years before you experience the marvelous truffles!
Throughout the world there are several different types of truffle, however in France only 2 are regularly planted: Tuber melanosporum and Tuber uncinatum.
• See The different types of Truffles.
Uncinatum tuber / Bourgogne Truffle:
The Bourgogne truffle is appreciated for its strong flavour and incomparable de sous-bois, it is also for its nut like flavour that it has such a reputation for quality. It is harvested in September.
Melanosporum tuber / Perigord Truffle:
The famous black truffle of Périgord is loved for its very strong unique flavour. It has a worldwide reputation. It is harvested from December to the end of March.
Which one to plant, Melanosporum tuber or Uncinatum tuber ?
Apart from the different flavour of each variety, generally plants with the uncinatum tuber are planted in regions where the winters can be severe. As the Bourgogne truffle reaches maturity earlier than son homologue, it can be harvested before hard frosts. The Périgord truffle is planted mainly in the west and south of France.
Other Truffle plants:
• Uncinatum tuber Truffle Hazel (Corylus avellana Truffier Uncinatum tuber), deciduous foliage, moist soil, hardy to -28°C
• Uncinatum tuber Truffle Downy Oak (Quercus pubescens Truffier Uncinatum tuber), deciduous foliage, hardy to -20°C
• Melanosporum tuber Truffle Downy Oak (Quercus pubescens Truffier Melanosporum tuber), deciduous foliage, hardy to -20°C
• Truffle Downy Oak (Quercus ilex Truffier), evergreen foliage, to be avoided in areas with winter temperatures regularly below -15°C
List of Hazels:
• Common Hazel (corylus avellana), edible fruits.
• Corkscrew Hazel (corylus avellana contorta), twisted branches, covered with catkins at the end of winter, does not produce fruits.
• Turkish Hazel (corylus colurna), conical shaped tree, fruits of no interest.
• Scarlet Hazel (corylus maxima purpurea), In August – September it produces large tasty hazel nuts.